In India, the primary education is being effectively maintained with the special care offered by the state machinery as per the provision of Indian constitution. Thereafter, the primary education is also considered and referred to as elementary education in India, which include a significant percentage of Indian population ranging from the children aged 6 to the 14 years old children. About 80 percentages of all recognized schools at the elementary stage are running under or being supported by the state. Being the largest provider of education all across the country, it serves as the game-changer of the Indian future.
As per the latest figures released by the Indian government, there are 5,816,673 school teachers working in the primary education sector of India. Education has also been made free of cost for children for the age period in between 6 to 14 years or at least up to class VIII legitimated with the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act of 2009. Several efforts have been taken to enhance quality made by the government. The District Education Revitalization Programme (DERP) was launched in 1994 with a goal to universalize the primary education in India by reforming and revitalizing the prevailing primary education system. 85% of the DERP was financially sourced by the central government and the remaining 15 percent was funded by the respective states. Opening 160000 new schools including 84000 alternative education schools delivering alternative education to approximately 3.5 million children, the DERP was also widely backed even by UNICEF and other international organizations.
The primary education has also seen by this scheme itself a high Gross Enrollment Ratio of 93–95% for the preceding three years in some states. Momentous improvements in staffing and enrollment of girls have also been taken place as a part of this scheme. The current scheme for universalizing the ‘Education for All’ is the famous ‘Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan’ that is one of the ever largest education initiatives in the world. Enrollment has been enhanced, but the levels of quality remain low. And due to a shortage of enough resources and lack of political will, the primary education sector suffers from gigantic gaps including high pupil to teacher ratios, shortage of infrastructure and poor levels of teacher training and so on.
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