Doctor of Philosophy is an academic degree that is probably being awarded by all universities across the globe. In India, universities set up and backed by government or other private managements have been conferring PhD for the outstanding specialized scholars in multiple disciplines. As of India, a master's degree is generally required to be admitted to a doctoral program in a university. Bachelors are sometimes offered admission directly to a Ph.D. programme only after completing the graduation by institutes like the IITs, the NITs and the Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research. In contrary, completing a Masters in Philosophy (M.Phil.) is a relevant prerequisite to starting a Ph.D. And for funding and fellowship, it is also required to qualify for the National Eligibility Test for Lectureship and Junior Research fellowship (NET for LS and JRF) conducted by the combined supervision of federal research organization Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and University Grants Commission (UGC). There have been many tectonic changes in the rules relating to a Ph.D. in India. According to the new rules prescribed by UGC, universities must have to conduct entrance exams in general ability and the selected subjects. After clearing these tests, the shortlisted candidates need to appear for an interview by the available supervisor and guide. After successful completion of the course work of the research, the students are required to give presentations of the research proposal (plan of work or synopsis) at the beginning, submit progress reports, give a pre-submission presentation and finally defend the thesis in an open defense viva-voce. Its value varies considerably according to the country, institution, and other certain criterions. A PhD holder is automatically awarded the academic title of ‘Doctor’. And the student who pursues his PhD research in a university is popularly called a doctoral student, Ph.D. student, or D.Phil. student. While PhD is an independent research degree, M.Phil (The Master of Philosophy), MPhil, or sometimes Ph.M. is an advanced postgraduate research degree. The advanced methods and prerequisites needed for a Master of Philosophy degree ordain it to be the most advanced research degree before getting in to Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D. or D.Phil.). An M.Phil. Degree most probably tends to generate thesis-only study, and therefore is regarded as a senior or second master's degree, staging between a taught Master's and a Ph.D. An M.Phil may only be conferred on graduate students, after completing some years of original research and it can serve as a provisional enrollment for a Ph.D.
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